Shift # 7

IDSourceDirectionTargetStatusContributed by
7to turn, rotate (intr.)to becomeAcceptedAZ

Comments:
Perhaps, the polysemy 'to turn round'/'to become' existed in Indo-European root *vert. (Slavic vert-, German werden, Latin vertere) Cf. examples in Фасмер I, 301.

Confirmed by 3 Guru(s)

Polysemy: Icelandic umsnúa 'to turn' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Берков
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Lezgian elqːün 'to spin, to swirl' — 'to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: бугъдиз элкъуьн 'to turn inot vapour'
  • References:
  • Comments: (LezgRus 393)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: TM
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Swahili pindua 'to turn, to topple' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Polikanov
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Old English awendan 'to turn away/off, avert, remove, turn upside down' — 'turn'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: He wæter awende to wînlîcum drence 'He turned water into winelike drink'
  • References:
  • Comments: Bosworth, Toller 61-62
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Azeri dön- 'to turn (back), to roll over' — 'to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: АзРС 81
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Latin verto 'to spin' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: (Glare 2042-2044)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Russian obernut'sja 'to turn' — 'to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A: Я обернулся и увидел уходящий троллейбус. 'I turned back and saw a trolleybus go away.'
  • Example for the meaning B: Обернулась царевна лягушкой. 'The princess turned into a frog.'
  • References:
  • Comments: Cf. also Russian вращаться, превращаться, borrowed from Church Slavonic. It is worth noting also оборотиться 'turn into', оборотень 'werewolf'.
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: French tourner 'to spin' Portuguese tornar-se 'to turn into, to become'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Cf. also. Portuguese tornassol 'sunflower', apparently derived from the meaning 'turn'.
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Spanish volver 'to turn' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A: volver la cabeza 'to turn one's head'
  • Example for the meaning B: volver en burla 'to turn into a joke'
  • References:
  • Comments: (Narumov 1995: 797)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Azeri çevir- 'to turn' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: also çevril- 'to turn over, to turn into'
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: Latin verto 'to turn' German werden 'to become'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments:
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Saamic коаввсэ 'to turn (back)' — 'to become similar, to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A: коаввэсьт чув гоаррэ кāсвэнѣ 'turn your face to the north'
  • Example for the meaning B: пāррьшя коаввэсьт ажэсь коавва; акэшка коаввэсьт оадзэнѣ 'The boy started looking similar to his father, the old woman turned into a spider'
  • References:
  • Comments: СаамРС, 94
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Semantic evolution: Ancient Greek μετατρέπω 'to turn back' → Modern Greek μετατρέπω 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A: met+ d` 6tr=peto '(Achilles) turned back'
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Хориков И. П., Малев М. Г. Новогреческо-русский словарь / Под ред. П. Пердикиса и Т. Папандопулоса., с. 514
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: English turn

  • Example for the meaning A: turn towards me! 'повернись ко мне!'
  • Example for the meaning B: a. to turn sour; b. to turn traitor; '1) ‘сделаться кислым’;'
  • References:
  • Comments: The English word was borrowed from the Old French tourner 'spin'.
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Derivation: Russian vraščat'sja 'to spin, to rotate' prevratit'sja 'to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments:
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: AZ
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Uzbek aylan- 'to spin, to go round, to turn' — 'to turn into'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: suv muzga aylandi 'the water turned into ice'
  • References:
  • Comments: Cf. The same in Karaim айлан- . КРПС 53
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Armenian dařnal 'to turn (back)' — 'to turn into, to become'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: АрмРС 179
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Karaim кайыр- 'to turn, to rotate' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: кÿннÿ кечеге кайырадылар 'They turned day into night'
  • References:
  • Comments: КРПС 285.
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Tabassaran ilt’i(b)k’ub 'to spin, to roll' — 'to transform'

  • Example for the meaning A: тIириччв илтIибкIура 'the spinning top is whirling'
  • Example for the meaning B: жанавриз илтIикIуб 'to turn into a wolf'
  • References:
  • Comments: (TabRus 174)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: TM
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Related shifts

Meaning ADirectionMeaning BDELETE
to return (intr.) to become