Shift # 57

IDSourceDirectionTargetStatusContributed by
57boyservantAcceptedIG

Comments:
Развитие, очевидно, идет следующим образом: мальчик > мальчик-слуга > слуга.

Confirmed by 3 Guru(s)

Polysemy: Tagalog batà 'child' — 'boy servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Таг 50
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: Ukrainian parubok 'young man, youth' — Polish parobek 'labourer'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Also Czech parobek 'slave', vern. 'guy'
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: Munji idá 'young man, youth' — Yidgha idã 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: ЭСИЯ 3, 102
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Hungarian inas 'boy-disciple' — 'valet, servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments:
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Old English cnafa 'boy' — 'young servant, servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Bosworth, Toller 161
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Old English cniht 'boy' — 'servant, (young) soldier'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Bosworth, Toller 162-163
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: English boy 'boy' — 'boy (errand boy, boy servant in the East)'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Cf. Also the Fr. garçon 'a boy waiter in a cafe'
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Old Slavonic отрокъ 'boy' — 'servant, servant boy'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References: Старославянский словарь. М., 1999, 424.
  • Comments: Cf. also отрiк 'worker', Bulg. отрок 'boy', Old Serb отрокъ 'under age' etc. See Фасмер III, 172, Копечный 1968
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Old East Slavic отрокъ 'boy, teenager' — 'slave'

  • Example for the meaning A: Оброшеныę въ огни отрокы (Остромирово Ев., л.245) 'boys thrown into the fire (Ostromir Gospels, p. 245)'
  • Example for the meaning B: И рече къ wтрокомъ своимъ: къторый wт васъ слоужити емоу хощеть, да аще оугодить емоу, живъ Гь, яко свободьнъ боудеть. Златостр.д. 1200 г.
  • References: Срезневский, II, 764
  • Comments: The Old Rus. отрокъ means also 'soldier': Пристрои Ратиборъ wтрокы въ wружьи (Повесть временных лет, 6603 г.)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Bulgarian hlape 'boy' — 'servant, slave'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References: Фасмер, IV, 257.
  • Comments: Cf. Also the Pol. сhłор, High Lus. khłор, khłорс "guy", Bulg. хлапе Mid. Rus., хлапак "boy" (Фасмер 4,257) Pol. сhłорiес "boy" (Фасмер, 4, 245). Rus. Холоп
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Latin puer 'child, baby; boy' — 'young servant, slave'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References: Дворецкий И.Х., Латинско-русский словарь. М., 1976
  • Comments: Glare 1514-1515
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Ancient Greek παῖς 'child, baby' — 'young slave'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: LSJ 1289
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: German Knabe 'boy' — English knave 'swindler, rogue'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References: Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998, 153
  • Comments: The Engl. knave can be traced back to the Old Engl. сnafa 'boy, young servant, servant'.
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: Old English cniht 'boy, servant' — German Knecht 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References: Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998
  • Comments: Old Engl. cniht ‘boy, servant, (young) soldier’ >Mod. Engl. knight
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: LG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Borrowing: Azeri malay 'young man, boy, youth' — Kyrghyz малай 'knave, servant, laborer'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Cf. also the Tatar малай 'child; son'
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: IG
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Azeri gәdә 'boy' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: АзРС 102
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Armenian tła 'boy' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: АрмРС 660
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Spanish muchacho 'boy, youth' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Narumov 1995: 518
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: French garçon 'boy' — 'servant (obs.), waiter'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments:
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Mandarin Chinese tóng 'teenager, child, under age' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: БКРС 707
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Borrowing: Old East Slavic челядь 'valetry, servants' — Komi челядь 'children'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: челядьöс доръян йöзкоста лун 'International Children's Day'
  • References:
  • Comments: КомиРС, 695-696
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Icelandic piltur 'young man, youth; boy' — 'worker, labourer'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Берков
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Derivation: Khmer ko:n 'child' → ko:n-khmuəy 'servants'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: Gorgoniev 1984, 66
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Romanian băiat 'boy' — 'valet'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B: băiat de casă 'valet, "boy"'
  • References:
  • Comments: DRRS 1, 211, DEX98
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Fula gorel 'young boy' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: ФРФС 202
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MR
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Classical Arabic ġulām- 'a young man, youth, boy, or male child' — 'a male slave'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: (Lane 2286-87).
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Geez daḳiḳ 'child, son; children (coll.)' — 'servant'

  • Example for the meaning A: daḳiḳa ʔaron 'sons of Aaron'
  • Example for the meaning B: daḳiḳu la-nəguś (Esth. 2:2) 'the king's servants'
  • References:
  • Comments: (LGz. 140; LLA 1100).
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Derivation: Chaha dängʸa 'boys' → yäbet dängʸa 'servants and slaves of the family (lit. children of the house)'

  • Example for the meaning A: yagdatɛ yädängʸa mädäru 'the area of the partition is the children's'; dängʸa tägred 'boys and girls'
  • Example for the meaning B: yäčbɛmma yäbet dängʸa yədgataropʷä 'as for the section of the central pillar, the servants sleep in it
  • References:
  • Comments: (LGur. I 44; Leslau 1983:40, 45)
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Cognates: Tigrinya ḳolʕa 'child, kid, infant' — Geez ḳʷəlʕe 'servant, domestic'

  • Example for the meaning A:
  • Example for the meaning B:
  • References:
  • Comments: (KT 900; LLA 414; LGz. 426). LGz. 426 reports for Geez the meaning A as well, but this meaning is not given in LLA
  • Related languages:
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Polysemy: Ancient Hebrew naʕar 'lad, adolescent; young man' — 'fellow, servant, attendant'

  • Example for the meaning A: naʕar ḳaṭōn ‘a little boy’ (1S 22:35)
  • Example for the meaning B: naʕǎrē hammelek ‘the servants of the king’ (Est 2:2)
  • References:
  • Comments: (HALOT 707)
  • Related languages: the same polysemy in Ugaritic nʕr (cf. DUL 616)
  • Contributed by: MB
  • Confirmed by 0 Guru(s)/Master(s)

Related shifts

Meaning ADirectionMeaning BDELETE
girl female servant, maid